Department of Theoretical Physics,A. Razmadze Institute of Mathematics,1 Aleksidze Street, Tbilisi 0193, Georgia

In Hamiltonian systems, conservation laws are closely related to symmetries of evolutionary equations.In case of modified Boussinesq hierarchy this relationship is especially tight as its entire infinite set of conservation laws forms a single involutive orbit of a simple one-parameter symmetry group. We discuss some geometric properties of this symmetry and show how its properties ensure involutivity of conservation laws.

Recall that the modified Boussinesq system is formed by the following set of partial differential equationsu_{t} = cv_{xx} + u_{x}v + uv_{x}v_{t} = − cu_{xx} + uu_{x} + kvv_{x} where $u\; =\; u(x,\; t),\; v\; =\; v(x,\; t)$ are smooth functions on $\mathbb{R}2$subjected to zero boundary conditions $u(\pm \infty ,\; t)\; =\; v(\pm \infty ,\; t)\; =\; 0$, while $c$ and $k$ are some real constants.In cases $k\; =\; -\; 1$ and $k\; =\; 3$ modified Boussinesq system has non-trivial bi-Hamiltonian structure that drastically simplifies analysis of the system in these sectors. The first case is described in [2],[5],[6],while in the present paper we focus on the second sector and show that in case $k\; =\; 3$ bi-Hamiltonian structure of modified Boussinesq system is related to non-Noether symmetry [1] of equations (1).Thus in case $k\; =\; 3$ modified Boussinesq equationsu_{t} = cv_{xx} + u_{x}v + uv_{x}v_{t} = − cu_{xx} + uu_{x} + 3vv_{x} can be rewritten in bi-Hamiltonian formu_{t} = W(dh ∧ du) = Ŵ(dĥ ∧ du)v_{t} = W(dh ∧ dv) = Ŵ(dĥ ∧ dv) where $W$ and $\u0174$ are compatible Poison bivector fields, i.e.[W , W] = [W , Ŵ] = [Ŵ , Ŵ] = 0 defined as followsW = + ∞ ∫ − ∞ ½(A ∧ A_{x} + B ∧ B_{x})dxŴ = + ∞ ∫ − ∞ (uB ∧ A_{x} + vB ∧ B_{x} − cA_{x} ∧ B_{x})dx Note that $A,\; B$ are vector fields that for every smooth functional $R\; =\; R(u)$ are definedvia variational derivatives A(R) = δR δu , B(R) = δR δv . Corresponding Hamiltonians in bi-Hamiltonian realization (3) are h = ½+ ∞ ∫ − ∞ (u^{2}v + v^{3} + 2cuv_{x})dxĥ = ½+ ∞ ∫ − ∞ (u^{2} + v^{2})dx This bi-Hamiltonian structure is related to symmetry of equations (2), but before we proceed letus remind that symmetry of evolutionary equations is given by the group of transformations(u , v) ↦ (g(u) , g(v)) which commutes with time evolutiond dt g(u) = g(u_{t}), d dt g(v) = g(v_{t}) In case of continuous one-parameter groups of transformation g(u) = e^{zLE}(u) = u + zL_{E}u + ½z^{2}(L_{E})^{2}u + ⋯g(v) = e^{zLE}(v) = v + zL_{E}v + ½z^{2}(L_{E})^{2}v + ⋯ generated by some vector field $E$, relation (9) gives rise to the followingconditions for the generator of symmetry $E$E(u)_{t} = cE(v)_{xx} + E(u)_{x}v + uE(v)_{x} + u_{x}E(v) + E(u)v_{x}E(v)_{t} = − cE(u)_{xx} + uE(u)_{x} + 3vE(v)_{x} + E(u)u_{x} + 3E(v)v_{x} Among solutions of equations (11) there is one important vector field —the generator of non-Noether symmetry which has the following formE = + ∞ ∫ − ∞ {[xuv + 2t(u^{3} + 3uv^{2} + 6cvv_{x} − 2c^{2}u_{xx})]A_{x} − cxvA_{xx}+ (xuu_{x} + xvv_{x})B + [xu^{2} + 2xv^{2} + 2t(5v^{3} + 3u^{2}v − 6cvu_{x} − 2c^{2}v_{xx})]B_{x}+ cxuB_{xx}}dx Applying one-parameter group of transformations g(z) = e^{zLE} generated by the vector field $E$ to the centre of Poisson algebra which in our case is formed by functional J = + ∞ ∫ − ∞ (ku + mv)dx where $k,\; m$ are arbitrary constants, produces one-parameter family of functionsJ(z) = e^{zLE}J = J + zL_{E}J+ ½(zL_{E})^{2}J + ⋯ (actually this is the orbit of non-Noether symmetry group that passes centre of Poisson algebra).It is interesting that the functionals $(L$_{E})^{m}J are in involution.

By calculating Lie derivatives of $J(0)$ along the vector field $E$ one can get explicit form of the conservation laws of the modified Boussinesq system:J^{(0)} = + ∞ ∫ − ∞ (ku + mv)dxJ^{(1)} = L_{E}J^{(0)} = m 2 + ∞ ∫ − ∞ (u^{2} + v^{2})dxJ^{(2)} = (L_{E})^{2}J^{(0)} = m+ ∞ ∫ − ∞ (u^{2}v + v^{3} + 2cuv_{x})dxJ^{(3)} = (L_{E})^{3}J^{(0)} = 3m 4 + ∞ ∫ − ∞ (u^{4} + 5v^{4} + 6u^{2}v^{2} − 12cv^{2}u_{x} + 4c^{2}u_{x}^{2} + 4c^{2}v_{x}^{2})dxJ^{(m)} = (L_{E})^{m}J^{(0)} = L_{E}J^{(m − 1)}

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